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In Press

  • Higgins, E. T.*, Rossignac-Milon, M.*, & Echterhoff, G. (in press). Shared reality: From sharing-is-believing to merging minds. Current Directions in Psychological Science. [* first authorship shared]
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (in press). Grounding together: Shared reality and cleansing practices. Commentary on “Grounded procedures: A proximate mechanism for the psychology of cleansing and other physical actions” by Lee, S,. & Schwarz, N. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

2020

  • Higgins, E. T., Nakkawita, E., Rossignac-Milon, M., Pinelli, F., & Jun, Y. (2020). Making the right decision: Intensifying the worth of a chosen option. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Advance online publication.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Nakkawita, E., & Cornwell, J. F. M. (2020). Beyond outcomes: How regulatory focus motivates consumer goal pursuit processes. Consumer Psychology Review, 3(1), 76-90.
      
  • Nakkawita, E., Mathmann, F., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Does your gain define my loss?: Socially-defined counterfactual loss and prevention-focused decision-making. Personality and Individual Differences, 160, 1–6.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., Pinelli, F., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Shared reality and abstraction: The social nature of predictive models. Commentary on “Above and beyond the concrete: The diverse representational substrates of the predictive brain” by Gilead, M., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N.. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, e145: 44-45.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., Bolger, N., Zee, K. S., Boothby, E. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Merged minds: Generalized shared reality in dyadic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advance online publication.
      
  • Zee, K. S., Bolger, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Regulatory effectiveness of social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advance online publication.
      

2019

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). The proper mix: Balancing motivational orientations in goal pursuit. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 4(1), 13–20.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Jago, C. P., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). When group influence is more or less likely: The case of moral judgments. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 41(6), 386–395.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Approach and avoidance dynamics: How expanding the scope informs motivation science. Psychological Inquiry, 30(3), 165–171.
      
  • Cornwell, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Sense of personal control intensifies moral judgments of others’ actions. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2261.
      
  • Cornwell, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Beyond value in moral phenomenology: The role of epistemic and control experiences. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2430.
      
  • Kanze, D., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). The motivation of mission statements: How regulatory mode influences workplace discrimination. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Advance online publication.
      
  • Komissarouk, S., Chernikova, M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Who is most likely to wear rose-colored glasses? How regulatory mode moderates self-flattery. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(3), 327-341.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Should we approach approach and avoid avoidance? An inquiry from different levels. Psychological Inquiry, 30(3), 111–124.
      

2018

  • Chen, C. Y., Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Feeling distressed from making decisions: Assessors’ need to be right. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(4), 743-761.
      
  • Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Value from fit with distinct motivational field environments. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 40(2), 61-72.
      
  • Kanze, D., Huang, L., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). We ask men to win and women not to lose: Closing the gender gap in startup funding. Academy of Management Journal, 61(2), 586-614.
      
  • Roczniewska, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Promotion or prevention messaging?: A field study on what works when you still have to work. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1990.
      
  • Roczniewska, M., Retowski, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). How person-organization fit impacts employees’ perceptions of justice and well-being. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2318.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Beyond intrapersonal cognitive consistency: Shared reality and the interpersonal motivation for truth. Psychological Inquiry, 29(2), 86-93.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Epistemic companions: Shared reality development in close relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 66-71.
      
  • Zee, K. S., Cavallo, J. V., Flores, A. J., Bolger, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Motivation moderates the effects of social support visibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(5), 735-765.
      

2017

  • Chun, J. S., Ames, D. R., Uribe, J. N., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Who do we think of as good judges? Those who agree with us about us. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 121-129.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). How the “truth” self relates to altruism: When your problem is mine. Social Cognition, 35(2), 204–226.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Shared reality makes life meaningful: Are we really going in the right direction?. Motivation Science, 3(3), 260–274.
      
  • Fridman, I. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Regulatory focus and regulatory fit in health messaging. Oxford research encyclopedia of communication.   
  • Kanze, D., Huang, L., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Male and female entrepreneurs get asked different questions by VCs — and it affects how much funding they get. Harvard Business Review.   
  • Komissarouk, S., Harpaz, G., & Nadler, A. (2017). Dispositional differences in seeking autonomy- or dependency-oriented help: Conceptual development and scale validation. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 103-112.
      
  • Majd, S., Conley, M. A., & Weber, E. U. (2017). Evidence of query theory as a tool to assist restrained eaters. American Journal of Health Behavior, 41(1), 33-41.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Stepping forward together: Could walking facilitate interpersonal conflict resolution?. American Psychologist, 72(4), 374-385.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Coleman, P. T., Rossignac-Milon, M., Tomasulo, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Moving on or digging deeper: Regulatory mode and interpersonal conflict resolution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(4), 621-641.
      

2016

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2016). Eager feelings and vigilant reasons: Regulatory focus differences in judging moral wrongs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(3), 338-355.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Cornwell, J. F. M. (2016). Securing foundations and advancing frontiers: Prevention and promotion effects on judgment & decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 56-67.
      

2015

  • Boldero, J. M., Higgins, E. T., & Hulbert, C. A. (2015). Self-regulatory and narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability: Common and discriminant relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 171-176.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Approach and avoidance in moral psychology: Evidence for three distinct motivational levels. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 139-149.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). The “ought” premise of moral psychology and the importance of the ethical “ideal”. Review of General Psychology, 19(3), 311-328.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Bajger, A. T., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Judging political hearts and minds: How political dynamics drive social judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(8), 1053-1068.
      
  • Strauman, T. J., Socolar, Y., Kwapil, L., Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., Sehnert, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Microinterventions targeting regulatory focus and regulatory fit selectively reduce dysphoric and anxious mood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 72, 18-29.
      

2014

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Truth, control, and value motivations: The “what,” “how,” and “why” of approach and avoidance. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Locomotion concerns with moral usefulness: When liberals endorse conservative binding moral foundations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 109-117.
      
  • Eitam, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). What’s in a goal? The role of motivational relevance in cognition and action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(2), 141-142.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Cornwell, J. F. M., & Franks, B. (2014). “Happiness” and “the good life” as motives working together effectively. In Elliot, A. J. (Ed.), Advances in motivation science (1 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 135-179). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
      
  • Komissarouk, S., & Nadler, A. (2014). “I” seek autonomy, “we” rely on each other: Self-construal and regulatory focus as determinants of autonomy- and dependency-oriented help-seeking behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(6), 726-738.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Ozaki, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Inflating and deflating the self: Sustaining motivational concerns through self-evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, 60-73.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Franks, B., Romero, T., Higgins, E. T., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Individual differences in chimpanzee reconciliation relate to social switching behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 90, 57-63.
      
  • Zou, X., Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). In pursuit of progress: Promotion motivation and risk preference in the domain of gains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(2), 183-201.
      

2013

  • Avnet, T., Laufer, D., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Are all experiences of fit created equal? Two paths to persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23(3), 301-316.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Morality and its relation to political ideology: The role of promotion and prevention concerns. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1164-1172.
      
  • Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Adjusting shared reality: Communicators’ memory changes as their connection with their audience changes. Social Cognition, 31(2), 162-186.
      
  • Eitam, B., Kennedy, P. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Motivation from control. Experimental Brain Research, 229(3), 475-484.
      
  • Franks, B., Reiss, D., Cole, P., Friedrich, V., Thompson, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Predicting how individuals approach enrichment: Regulatory focus in cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinus oedipus). Zoo Biology, 32(4), 427-435.
      
  • Franks, B., Champagne, F. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). How enrichment affects exploration trade-offs in rats: Implications for welfare and well-being. PLoS One, 8(12), e83578.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Franks, B., Pavarini, D., Sehnert, S., & Manley, K. (2013). Expressed likelihood as motivator: Creating value through engaging what’s real. Journal of Economic Psychology, 38, 4-15.
      
  • Kim, H., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Evidence that self-regulatory mode affects retirement savings. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 25(3), 248-263.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). The distinct psychologies of “looking” and “leaping”: Assessment and locomotion as the springs of action. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 79-92.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Dodging monsters and dancing with dreams: Success and failure at different levels of approach and avoidance. Emotion Review, 5(3), 254-258.
      

2012

  • Franks, B., Higgins, E. T., & Champagne, F. A. (2012). Evidence for individual differences in regulatory focus in rats, Rattus norvegicus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(4), 347-354.
      
  • Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Effectiveness in humans and other animals: A common basis for well-being and welfare. In Olson, J. M., & Zanna, M. P. (Eds.), In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 46, pp. 285-346). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivational fit. In Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (Eds.), In Cognitive consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition (pp. 132-153). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Regulatory focus theory. In Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 483-504). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Accessibility and priming. In Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of theories of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 75-96). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Marguc, J., & Scholer, A. A. (2012). Value from adversity: How we deal with adversity matters. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 965-967.
      
  • McNeill, I. M., Higgins, E. T., Dreu, C. D. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2012). The price of a piece of cheese: Value from fit between epistemic needs and a learning versus an outcome focus. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25(3), 315-327.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivated thinking. In Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (Eds.), In The Oxford handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 390-409). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.   
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Commitment to change from locomotion motivation during deliberation. Motivation and Emotion, 36(2), 114-129.
      

2011

  • Bohns, V. K., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Liking the same things, but doing things differently: Outcome versus strategic compatibility in partner preferences for joint tasks. Social Cognition, 29(5), 497-527.
      
  • Boldero, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Regulatory focus and political decision making: When people favor reform over the status quo. Political Psychology, 32(3), 399-418.
      
  • Hedberg, P. H., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). What remains on your mind after you are done?: Flexible regulation of knowledge accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 882-890.
      
  • Klenk, M. M., Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Regulatory focus and anxiety: A self-regulatory model of GAD-depression comorbidity. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 935-943.
      
  • Zhang, S., Higgins, E. T., & Chen, G. (2011). Managing others like you were managed: How prevention focus motivates copying interpersonal norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 647-663.
      

2010

  • Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). My way: How strategic preferences vary by negotiator role and regulatory focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1138-1142.
      
  • Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Feeling right or being right: When strong assessment yields strong correction. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 316-324.
      
  • Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., Hagiwara, N., Navarrete, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). The ecology of automaticity: How situational contingencies shape action semantics and social behavior. Psychological Science, 21(9), 1311-1317.
      
  • Eitam, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Motivation in mental accessibility: Relevance of a representation (ROAR) as a new framework. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(10), 951-967.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Cesario, J., Hagiwara, N., Spiegel, S., & Pittman, T. (2010). Increasing or decreasing interest in activities: The role of regulatory fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 559-572.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Zou, X., Fujita, K., Stroessner, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). When risk seeking becomes a motivational necessity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(2), 215-231.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Conflict and control at different levels of self-regulation. In Hassin, R. R., Ochsner, K. N., & Trope, Y. (Eds.), In Self control in society, mind, and brain New York, NY: Oxford University Press.   
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Regulatory focus in a demanding world. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), In Handbook of personality and self-regulation (pp. 291-314). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
      

2009

  • Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., Arora, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Regulatory fit in negotiation: Effects of “prevention-buyer” and “promotion-seller” fit. Social Cognition, 27(3), 365-384.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Weber, E., & Grant, H. (2009). Formulating and testing theories in psychology. In Gelman, A., & Cortina, J. (Eds.), In A quantitative tour of the social sciences (pp. 271-300). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2009). Engaging the consumer: The science and art of the value creation process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 100-114.
      
  • Koenig, A. M., Cesario, J., Molden, D. C., Kosloff, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Incidental experiences of regulatory fit and the processing of persuasive appeals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(10), 1342-1355.
      
  • Koenig, A. M., Cesario, J., Molden, D. C., Kosloff, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Incidental experiences of regulatory fit and the processing of persuasive appeals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(10), 1342-1355.
      
  • Mauro, R., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2009). The perfect mix: Regulatory complementarity and the speed-accuracy balance in group performance. Psychological Science, 20(6), 681-685.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Exploring the complexities of value creation: The role of engagement strength. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 137-143.
      

2008

  • Cesario, J., Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). Regulatory fit and persuasion: Basic principles and remaining questions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 444-463.
      
  • Cesario, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Making message recipients "feel right": How nonverbal cues can increase persuasion. Psychological Science, 19(5), 415-420.
      
  • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., Kopietz, R., & Groll, S. (2008). How communication goals determine when audience tuning biases memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(1), 3-21.
      
  • Halamish, V., Liberman, N., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (2008). Regulatory focus effects on discounting over uncertainty for losses vs. gains. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(5), 654-666.
      
  • Hausmann, L. R. M., Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Communication and group perception: Extending the "saying is believing" effect. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11(4), 539-554.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). When is personality revealed?: A motivated cognition approach. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3 ed., pp. 182-207). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2008). Regulatory fit. In Shah, J. Y., & Gardner, W. L. (Eds.), In Handbook of motivation science (pp. 356-372). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., Camacho, C. J., Idson, L. C., Spiegel, S., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). How making the same decision in a "proper way" creates value. Social Cognition, 26(5), 496-514.
      
  • Kopietz, R., Echterhoff, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). When does communication affect communicators’ memory? The role of encoding differences in audience-tuning effects. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 55.   
  • Latimer, A. E., Williams-Piehota, P., Katulak, N. A., Cox, A., Mowad, L., Higgins, E. T., & Salovey, P. (2008). Promoting fruit and vegetable intake through messages tailored to individual differences in regulatory focus. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 363-369.
      
  • Latimer, A. E., Rivers, S. E., Rench, T. A., Katulak, N. A., Hicks, A., Hodorowski, J. K., Higgins, E. T., & Salovey, P. (2008). A field experiment testing the utility of regulatory fit messages for promoting physical activity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 826-832.
      
  • Molden, D. C., Lee, A. Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Motivations for promotion and prevention. In Shah, J. Y., & Gardner, W. L. (Eds.), In Handbook of motivation science (pp. 169-187). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). How preferences for eager versus vigilant judgment strategies affect self-serving conclusions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1219-1228.
      
  • Pierro, A., Leder, S., Mannetti, L., Tory Higgins, E., Kruglanski, A. W., & Aiello, A. (2008). Regulatory mode effects on counterfactual thinking and regret. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(2), 321-329.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). People as resources: Exploring the functionality of warm and cold. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1111-1120.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Distinguishing levels of approach and avoidance: An analysis using regulatory focus theory. In Elliot, A. J. (Ed.), In Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 489-504). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Stroessner, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Responding to negativity: How a risky tactic can serve a vigilant strategy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 767-774.
      

2007

  • Brodscholl, J. C., Kober, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Strategies of self-regulation in goal attainment versus goal maintenance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(4), 628-648.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Freitas, A. L. (2007). Regulatory fit: Its nature and consequences. In Ostroff, C., & Judge, T. A. (Eds.), In Perspectives on organizational fit (pp. 71-98). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T., Echterhoff, G., Crespillo, R., & Kopietz, R. (2007). Effects of communication on social knowledge: Sharing reality with individual versus group audiences. Japanese Psychological Research, 49(2), 89-99.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2007). In search of generative mechanisms: The case of value from engagement strength. In Shoda, Y., Cervone, D., & Downey, G. (Eds.), In Persons in context: Building a science of the individual (pp. 110-129). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2007). Value. In Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 454-472). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., & Pittman, T. S. (2007). Motives of the human animal: Comprehending, managing, and sharing inner states. Annual Review of Psychology, 59(1), 361-385.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., Higgins, E. T., & Capozza, D. (2007). “On the move” or “staying put”: Locomotion, need for closure, and reactions to organizational change. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(6), 1305-1340.
      
  • Liberman, N., Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Completed vs. interrupted priming: Reduced accessibility from post-fulfillment inhibition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(2), 258-264.
      
  • Presaghi, F., Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). “Modi” regolatori e stili di insegnamento [Fit between regulatory mode and teaching styles]. Psicologia Sociale(1), 149-165.   

2006

  • Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Automatic social behavior as motivated preparation to interact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(6), 893-910.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Value from hedonic experience and engagement. Psychological Review, 113(3), 439-460.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Motivational sources of unintended thought: Irrational intrusions or side effects of rational strategies?. In Hassin, R. R., Uleman, J. S., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.), In The new unconscious (pp. 516-536). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). How regulatory fit creates value. In De Cremer, D., Zeelenberg, M., & Murnighan, K. J. (Eds.), In Social psychology and economics (pp. 79-94). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Theory development as a family affair. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(2), 129-132.
      
  • Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Regulatory mode and the joys of doing: Effects of "locomotion" and "assessment" on intrinsic and extrinsic task-motivation. European Journal of Personality, 20(5), 355-375.
      
  • Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Progress takes work: Effects of the locomotion dimension on job involvement, effort investment, and task performance in organizations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(7), 1723-1743.
      

2005

  • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., & Groll, S. (2005). Audience-tuning effects on memory: The role of shared reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 257-276.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Azizian, A., Travers, S., & Berry, S. A. (2005). The evaluative connotation of processing fluency: Inherently positive or moderated by motivational context?. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(6), 636-644.
      
  • Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Accessibility from active and fulfilled goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(3), 220-239.
      
  • Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). How global versus local perception fits regulatory focus. Psychological Science, 16(8), 631-636.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2005). Value from regulatory fit. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(4), 209-213.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2005). Humans as applied motivation scientists: Self-consciousness from “shared reality” and “becoming”. In Terrace, H. S., & Metcalfe, J. (Eds.), In The missing link in cognition: Origins of self-reflective consciousness (pp. 157-173). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.   
  • Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Predicting the intensity of losses vs. non-gains and non-losses vs. gains in judging fairness and value: A test of the loss aversion explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(5), 527-534.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Motivated thinking. In Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (Eds.), In The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 295-318). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.   
  • Silberman, I., Higgins, E. T., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Religion and world change: Violence and terrorism versus peace. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 761-784.
      

2004

  • Brockner, J., Higgins, E. T., & Low, M. B. (2004). Regulatory focus theory and the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 203-220.
      
  • Cesario, J., Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory fit and persuasion: Transfer from "feeling right". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(3), 388-404.
      
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Werth, L. (2004). How threat from stereotype disconfirmation triggers self-defense. Social Cognition, 22(1), 54-74.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Spiegel, S. (2004). Promotion and prevention strategies for self-regulation: A motivated cognition perspective. In Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (1 ed., pp. 171-187). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). The eighth Koan of progress in social psychology: A variable anointed as “special” will demand special treatment. In Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Prentice, D. A. (Eds.), In Perspectivism in social psychology: The yin and yang of scientific progress (pp. 305-317). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory fit: An experience that creates value. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 2(1-2), 9-22.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). Making a theory useful: Lessons handed down. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(2), 138-145.
      
  • Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Imagining how you’d feel: The role of motivational experiences from regulatory fit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(7), 926-937.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Theory construction in social personality psychology: Personal experiences and lessons learned. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(2), 96-97.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Categorization under uncertainty: Resolving vagueness and ambiguity with eager versus vigilant strategies. Social Cognition, 22(2), 248-277.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Promoting us or preventing them: Regulatory focus and manifestations of intergroup bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(4), 433-446.
      
  • Spiegel, S., Grant-Pillow, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). How regulatory fit enhances motivational strength during goal pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34(1), 39-54.
      

2003

  • Avnet, T., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Locomotion, assessment, and regulatory fit: Value transfer from “how” to “what”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(5), 525-530.
      
  • Ayduk, O., May, D., Downey, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Tactical differences in coping with rejection sensitivity: The role of prevention pride. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(4), 435-448.
      
  • Bianco, A. T., Higgins, E. T., & Klem, A. (2003). How “fun/importance” fit affects performance: Relating implicit theories to instructions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(9), 1091-1103.
      
  • Camacho, C. J., Higgins, E. T., & Luger, L. (2003). Moral value transfer from regulatory fit: What feels right is right and what feels wrong is wrong. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 498-510.
      
  • Dweck, C. S., Higgins, E. T., & Grant-Pillow, H. (2003). Self-systems give unique meaning to self variables. In Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (1 ed., pp. 239-252). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Bianco, A. T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade-off or separate strategic concerns?. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90(1), 148-164.
      
  • Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Optimism, promotion pride, and prevention pride as predictors of quality of life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(12), 1521-1532.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Molden, D. C. (2003). How strategies for making judgments and decisions affect cognition: Motivated cognition revisited. In Bodenhausen, G. V., & Lambert, A. J. (Eds.), In Foundations of social cognition: A Festschrift in honor of Robert S. Wyer, Jr. (pp. 211-235). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T., Kruglanski, A. W., & Pierro, A. (2003). Regulatory mode: Locomotion and assessment as distinct orientations. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 293-344). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Idson, L. C., Freitas, A. L., Spiegel, S., & Molden, D. C. (2003). Transfer of value from fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6), 1140-1153.
      

2002

  • Brockner, J., Paruchuri, S., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory focus and the probability estimates of conjunctive and disjunctive events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 87(1), 5-24.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., Salovey, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). When to begin? Regulatory focus and initiating goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(1), 121-130.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Enjoying goal-directed action: The role of regulatory fit. Psychological Science, 13(1), 1-6.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory fit and resisting temptation during goal pursuit. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(3), 291-298.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2002). How self-regulation creates distinct values: The case of promotion and prevention decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(3), 177-191.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Promotion and prevention forms of ingroup bias. In Mackie, D. M., & Smith, E. R. (Eds.), In From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups (pp. 31-48). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.   

2001

  • Brockner, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory rocus theory: Implications for the study of emotions at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(1), 35-66.
      
  • Förster, J., Grant, H., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Success/failure feedback, expectancies, and approach/avoidance motivation: How regulatory focus moderates classic relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(3), 253-260.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Friedman, R., Harlow, R. E., Idson, L. C., Ayduk, O. N., & Taylor, A. (2001). Achievement orientations from subjective histories of success: Promotion pride versus prevention pride. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31(1), 3-23.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & May, D. (2001). Individual self-regulatory functions: It’s not “we” regulation, but it’s still social. In Sedikides, C., & Brewer, M. (Eds.), In Individual self, relational self, collective self (pp. 47-67). New York, NY: Psychology Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and prevention experiences: Relating emotions to nonemotional motivational states. In Forgas, J. P. (Ed.), In Handbook of affect and social cognition (pp. 186-211). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Shared reality and social influence in groups and organizations. In Butera, F., & Mugny, G. (Eds.), In Social influence in social reality: Promoting individual and social change (pp. 33-52). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.   
  • Liberman, N., Molden, D. C., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and prevention focus on alternative hypotheses: Implications for attributional functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 5-18.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory concerns and appraisal efficiency: The general impact of promotion and prevention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(5), 693-705.
      

2000

  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Strack, F. (2000). When stereotype disconfirmation is a personal threat: How prejudice and prevention focus moderate incongruency effects. Social Cognition, 18(2), 178-197.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2000). Motivational science: The nature and functions of wanting. In Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), In Motivational science: Social and personality perspectives (pp. 1-20). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55(11), 1217-1230.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2000). Social cognition: Learning about what matters in the social world. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(1), 3-39.
    3.0.CO;2-6′ class=’papercite_doi’ title=’View document on publisher site’ target=”_blank”>  
  • Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Distinguishing gains from nonlosses and losses from nongains: A regulatory focus perspective on hedonic intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36(3), 252-274.
      
  • Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). How current feedback and chronic effectiveness influence motivation: everything to gain versus everything to lose. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(4), 583-592.
      
  • Levine, J. M., Higgins, E. T., & Choi, H. (2000). Development of strategic norms in groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 88-101.
      
  • Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Pragmatic use of stereotyping in teamwork: Social loafing and compensation as a function of inferred partner–situation fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 962-974.
      

1999

  • Higgins, E. T., Trope, Y., & Kwon, J. (1999). Augmentation and undermining from combining activities: The role of choice in activity engagement theory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(3), 285-307.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Grant, H., & Shah, J. (1999). Self-regulation and quality of life: Emotional and non-emotional life experiences. In Kahneman, D., Shah, J., & Schwarz, N. (Eds.), In Well-being: The foundations of hedonic psychology (pp. 244-266). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). “Saying is believing” effects: When sharing reality about something biases knowledge and evaluations. In Thompson, L. L., Levine, J. M., & Messick, D. M. (Eds.), In Shared cognition in organizations: The management of knowledge (pp. 33-48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and prevention as a motivational duality: Implications for evaluative processes. In Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.), In Dual-process theories in social psychology (pp. 503-525). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). Persons or situations: Unique explanatory principles or variability in general principles?. In Cervone, D., & Shoda, Y. (Eds.), In The coherence of personality: Social-cognitive bases of consistency, variability, and organization (pp. 61-93). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., Camacho, C. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and prevention choices between stability and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1135-1145.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Own versus other standpoints in self-regulation: Developmental antecedents and functional consequences. Review of General Psychology, 3(3), 188-223.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Internal representations of others in self-regulation: A new look at a classic issue. Social Cognition, 17(2), 186-208.
      

1998

  • Brendl, M. C., Markman, A. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1998). Mental accounting as self-regulation: Representativeness to goal-derived categories. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 29(2), 89-104.   
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (1998). Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: Regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1115-1131.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Silberman, I. (1998). Development of regulatory focus: Promotion and prevention as ways of living. In Heckhausen, J., & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.), In Motivation and self-regulation across the life span (pp. 78-113). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
      
  • Higgins, T. E. (1998). The aboutness principle: A pervasive influence on human inference. Social Cognition, 16(1), 173-198.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1998). From expectancies to worldviews: Regulatory focus in socialization and cognition. In Darley, J. M., & Cooper, J. (Eds.), In Attribution and social interaction: The legacy of Edward E. Jones (pp. 243-309). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      
  • Shah, J., Higgins, E. T., & Friedman, R. S. (1998). Performance incentives and means: How regulatory focus influences goal attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 285-293.
      

1997

  • (1997). Biases in social cognition: “Aboutness” as a general principle. In McGarty, C., Haslam, A. S., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In The message of social psychology: Perspectives on mind in society (pp. 182-199). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.   
  • Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Regulatory focus and strategic inclinations: Promotion and prevention in decision-making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69(2), 117-132.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Shah, J., & Friedman, R. S. (1997). Emotional responses to goal attainment: Strength of regulatory focus as moderator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(3), 515-525.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280-1300.
      
  • Shah, J., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Expectancy x value effects: Regulatory focus as determinant of magnitude and direction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 447-458.
      

1996

  • Alfieri, T., Ruble, D. N., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Gender stereotypes during adolescence: Developmental changes and the transition to junior high school. Developmental Psychology, 32(6), 1129-1137.
      
  • Brendl, M. C., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Principles of judging valence: What makes events positive or negative?. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 95-160). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Hardin, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. In Sorrentino, R. M., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of motivation and cognition: The interpersonal context (Vol. 3, pp. 28-84). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Knowledge activation: Accessibility, applicability, and salience. In Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), In Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 133-168). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). The "self digest": Self-knowledge serving self-regulatory functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1062-1083.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Ideals, oughts, and regulatory focus: Affect and motivation from distinct pains and pleasures. In Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.), In The psychology of action: Linking cognition and motivation to behavior (pp. 91-114). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Emotional experiences: The pains and pleasures of distinct regulatory systems. In Kavanaugh, R. D., Zimmerberg, B., & Fein, S. (Eds.), In Emotion: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 203-241). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   

1995

  • Brendl, M. C., Higgins, E. T., & Lemm, K. M. (1995). Sensitivity to varying gains and losses: The role of self-discrepancies and event framing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1028-1051.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Ruble, D. N. (1995). The four A’s of life transition effects: Attention, accessibility, adaptation, and adjustment. Social Cognition, 13(3), 215-242.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. (1995). Self-discrepancies and developmental shifts in vulnerability: Life transitions in the regulatory significance of others. In Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), In Emotion, cognition, and representation (Vol. 6, pp. 191-230). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., Lee, J., Kwon, J., & Trope, Y. (1995). When combining intrinsic motivations undermines interest: A test of activity engagement theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(5), 749-767.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Brendl, M. C. (1995). Accessibility and applicability: Some "activation rules" influencing judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(3), 218-243.
      
  • Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1995). Social determinants of cognition. Social Cognition, 13(3), 183-187.
      
  • Roney, C. J. R., Higgins, E. T., & Shah, J. (1995). Goals and framing: How outcome focus influences motivation and emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(11), 1151-1160.
      

1994

  • Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J. R., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus ought predilections for approach and avoidance: Distinct self-regulatory systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(2), 276-286.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Liberman, A. (1994). Memory errors from a change of standard: A lack of awareness or of understanding?. Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 227-258.
      
  • Ruble, D. N., Eisenberg, R., & Higgins, E. T. (1994). Developmental changes in achievement evaluation: Motivational implications of self-other differences. Child Development, 65(4), 1095-1110.
      
  • Tykocinskl, O., Higgins, E. T., & Chaiken, S. (1994). Message framing, self-discrepancies, and yielding to persuasive messages: The motivational significance of psychological situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(1), 107-115.
      

1993

  • Alexander, M. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Emotional trade-offs of becoming a parent: How social roles influence self-discrepancy effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1259-1269.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Winter, L. (1993). The "acquisition principle": How beliefs about a behavior’s prolonged circumstances influence correspondent inference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19(5), 605-619.
      
  • Levine, J. M., Resnick, L. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Social foundations of cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 585-612.
      
  • Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The self construct in social cognition: Past, present, and future. In Segal, Z. V., & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.), In The self in emotional distress: Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives (pp. 3-40). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Trope, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The what, when, and how of dispositional inference: New answers and new questions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19(5), 493-500.
      

1992

  • Higgins, E. T., Vookles, J., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self and health: How "patterns" of self-beliefs predict types of emotional and physical problems. Social Cognition, 10(1), 125-150.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social cognition as a social science: How social action creates meaning. In Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Oliveri, M. E. (Eds.), In The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 241-278). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1992). Unconscious sources of subjectivity and suffering: Is consciousness the solution?. In Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (Eds.), In The construction of social judgments (pp. 67-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Increasingly complex but less interesting articles: Scientific progress or regulatory problem?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(4), 489-492.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self-discrepancies and biographical memory: Personality and cognition at the level of psychological situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(5), 527-535.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Achieving ‘shared reality’ in the communication game: A social action that creates meaning. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 11(3), 107-131.
      
  • Newman, L. S., Higgins, E. T., & Vookles, J. (1992). Self-guide strength and emotional vulnerability: Birth order as a moderator of self-affect relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(4), 402-411.
      
  • Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social psychological foundations of mental health. In Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Oliveri, M. E. (Eds.), In The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanisms and applications (pp. 1-23). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   

1991

  • Higgins, E. T. (1991). Expanding the law of cognitive structure activation: The role of knowledge applicability. Psychological Inquiry, 2(2), 192-193.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1991). Development of self-regulatory and self-evaluative processes: Costs, benefits, and tradeoffs. In Self processes and development (Vol. 23, pp. 125). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.   
  • McCann, D. C., Higgins, E. T., & Fondacaro, R. A. (1991). Primacy and recency in communication and self-persuasion: How successive audiences and multiple encodings influence subsequent evaluative judgments. Social Cognition, 9(1), 47-66.
      

1990

  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Self-state representations: Patterns of interconnected beliefs with specific holistic meanings and importance. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28(3), 248-253.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Personality, social psychology, and person-situation relations: Standards and knowledge activation as a common language. In Pervin, L. A. (Ed.), In Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 301-338). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., & Trope, Y. (1990). Activity engagement theory: Implications of multiply identifiable input for intrinsic motivation. In Higgins, E. T., & Sorrentino, R. M. (Eds.), In Handbook of motivation and cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 229-264). New York, NY: Guilford Press.   
  • Higgins, E. T., Tykocinski, O., & Vookles, J. (1990). Patterns of self-beliefs: The psychological significance of relations among the actual, ideal, ought, can, and future selves. In Olson, J. M., Zanna, M. P., & Herman, P. C. (Eds.), In Self-inference processes: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 6, pp. 153-190). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.   
  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Lay epistemic theory and the relation between motivation and cognition. Psychological Inquiry, 1(3), 209-210.
      
  • McCann, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Social cognition and communication. In Giles, H., & Robinson, P. W. (Eds.), In Handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 13-32). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.   
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating self-discrepancy to self-esteem: The contribution of discrepancy beyond actual-self ratings. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26(2), 108-123.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). The development of self-system vulnerabilities: Social and cognitive factors in developmental psychopathology. In Sternberg, R. J., & Kolligan Jr., J. (Eds.), In Competence considered (pp. 286-314). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.   
  • Moretti, M. M., Higgins, E. T., & Feldman, L. A. (1990). The self-system in depression: Conceptualization and treatment. In McCann, D. C., & Endler, N. S. (Eds.), In Depression: New directions in theory, research, and practice (pp. 127-156). Toronto, ON, Canada: Wall & Emerson.   

1987

  • Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-discrepancy: A theory relating self and affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319-340.
      

1985

  • Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-concept discrepancy theory: A psychological model for distinguishing among different aspects of depression and anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 51-76.
      

1977

  • Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., & Jones, C. R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13(2), 141-154.
      
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