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20202019201820172016201520142013201220112010200920082007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995199419931992199119901987 – 1985 – 1977

In Press

  • Higgins, E. T.*, Rossignac-Milon, M.*, & Echterhoff, G. (in press). Shared reality: From sharing-is-believing to merging minds. Current Directions in Psychological Science. [* first authorship shared]
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (in press). Grounding together: Shared reality and cleansing practices. Commentary on “Grounded procedures: A proximate mechanism for the psychology of cleansing and other physical actions” by Lee, S,. & Schwarz, N. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

2020

  • Higgins, E. T., & Nakkawita, E. (2020). Motives Working Together: Value, Truth, and Control in Goal Selection and Pursuit. In Van Lange, P. A. M., Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (3rd ed., pp. 85–105). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., Nakkawita, E., Rossignac-Milon, M., Pinelli, F., & Jun, Y. (2020). Making the Right Decision: Intensifying the Worth of a Chosen Option. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 30(4), 712–732.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Nakkawita, E., & Cornwell, J. F. M. (2020). Beyond Outcomes: How Regulatory Focus Motivates Consumer Goal Pursuit Processes. Consumer Psychology Review, 3(1), 76-90.
      
  • Nakkawita, E., Mathmann, F., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Does Your Gain Define My Loss?: Socially-Defined Counterfactual Loss and Prevention-Focused Decision-Making. Personality and Individual Differences, 160, 1–6.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., Pinelli, F., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Shared Reality and Abstraction: The Social Nature of Predictive Models. Commentary on “Above and beyond the Concrete: The Diverse Representational Substrates of the Predictive Brain” by Gilead, M., Trope, Y., & Liberman, N.. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 43, e145: 44-45.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., Bolger, N., Zee, K. S., Boothby, E. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Merged Minds: Generalized Shared Reality in Dyadic Relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advance online publication.
      
  • Zee, K. S., Bolger, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2020). Regulatory Effectiveness of Social Support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Advance online publication.
      

2019

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). The Proper Mix: Balancing Motivational Orientations in Goal Pursuit. Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, 4(1), 13–20.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Jago, C. P., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). When Group Influence Is More or Less Likely: The Case of Moral Judgments. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 41(6), 386–395.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Approach and Avoidance Dynamics: How Expanding the Scope Informs Motivation Science. Psychological Inquiry, 30(3), 165–171.
      
  • Cornwell, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Sense of Personal Control Intensifies Moral Judgments of Others’ Actions. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2261.
      
  • Cornwell, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Beyond Value in Moral Phenomenology: The Role of Epistemic and Control Experiences. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 2430.
      
  • Kanze, D., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). The motivation of mission statements: How regulatory mode influences workplace discrimination. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Advance online publication.
      
  • Komissarouk, S., Chernikova, M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Who Is Most Likely to Wear Rose-Colored Glasses? How Regulatory Mode Moderates Self-Flattery. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(3), 327-341.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2019). Should We Approach Approach and Avoid Avoidance? An Inquiry from Different Levels. Psychological Inquiry, 30(3), 111–124.
      

2018

  • Chen, C. Y., Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Feeling Distressed from Making Decisions: Assessors’ Need to Be Right. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(4), 743-761.
      
  • Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Value from Fit with Distinct Motivational Field Environments. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 40(2), 61-72.
      
  • Kanze, D., Huang, L., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). We Ask Men to Win and Women Not to Lose: Closing the Gender Gap in Startup Funding. Academy of Management Journal, 61(2), 586-614.
      
  • Roczniewska, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Promotion or Prevention Messaging?: A Field Study on What Works When You Still Have to Work. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1990.
      
  • Roczniewska, M., Retowski, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). How Person-Organization Fit Impacts Employees’ Perceptions of Justice and Well-Being. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2318.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Beyond Intrapersonal Cognitive Consistency: Shared Reality and the Interpersonal Motivation for Truth. Psychological Inquiry, 29(2), 86-93.
      
  • Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Epistemic Companions: Shared Reality Development in Close Relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology, 23, 66-71.
      
  • Zee, K. S., Cavallo, J. V., Flores, A. J., Bolger, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2018). Motivation Moderates the Effects of Social Support Visibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 114(5), 735-765.
      

2017

  • Chun, J. S., Ames, D. R., Uribe, J. N., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Who Do We Think of as Good Judges? Those Who Agree with Us about Us. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 121-129.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). How the “Truth” Self Relates to Altruism: When Your Problem Is Mine. Social Cognition, 35(2), 204–226.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Shared Reality Makes Life Meaningful: Are We Really Going in the Right Direction?. Motivation Science, 3(3), 260–274.
      
  • Fridman, I. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Regulatory Focus and Regulatory Fit in Health Messaging. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication.
  • Kanze, D., Huang, L., Conley, M. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Male and Female Entrepreneurs Get Asked Different Questions by VCs — and It Affects How Much Funding They Get. Harvard Business Review.
  • Komissarouk, S., Harpaz, G., & Nadler, A. (2017). Dispositional Differences in Seeking Autonomy- or Dependency-Oriented Help: Conceptual Development and Scale Validation. Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 103-112.
      
  • Majd, S., Conley, M. A., & Weber, E. U. (2017). Evidence of Query Theory as a Tool to Assist Restrained Eaters. American Journal of Health Behavior, 41(1), 33-41.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Rossignac-Milon, M., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Stepping Forward Together: Could Walking Facilitate Interpersonal Conflict Resolution?. American Psychologist, 72(4), 374-385.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Coleman, P. T., Rossignac-Milon, M., Tomasulo, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2017). Moving on or Digging Deeper: Regulatory Mode and Interpersonal Conflict Resolution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(4), 621-641.
      

2016

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2016). Eager Feelings and Vigilant Reasons: Regulatory Focus Differences in Judging Moral Wrongs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(3), 338-355.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Cornwell, J. F. M. (2016). Securing Foundations and Advancing Frontiers: Prevention and Promotion Effects on Judgment & Decision Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 56-67.
      

2015

  • Boldero, J. M., Higgins, E. T., & Hulbert, C. A. (2015). Self-Regulatory and Narcissistic Grandiosity and Vulnerability: Common and Discriminant Relations. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 171-176.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Approach and Avoidance in Moral Psychology: Evidence for Three Distinct Motivational Levels. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 139-149.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). The “Ought” Premise of Moral Psychology and the Importance of the Ethical “Ideal”. Review of General Psychology, 19(3), 311-328.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Bajger, A. T., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Judging Political Hearts and Minds: How Political Dynamics Drive Social Judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(8), 1053-1068.
      
  • Strauman, T. J., Socolar, Y., Kwapil, L., Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., Sehnert, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2015). Microinterventions Targeting Regulatory Focus and Regulatory Fit Selectively Reduce Dysphoric and Anxious Mood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 72, 18-29.
      

2014

  • Cornwell, J. F. M., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Truth, Control, and Value Motivations: The “What,” “How,” and “Why” of Approach and Avoidance. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 8.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Locomotion Concerns with Moral Usefulness: When Liberals Endorse Conservative Binding Moral Foundations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 109-117.
      
  • Eitam, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). What’s in a Goal? The Role of Motivational Relevance in Cognition and Action. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37(2), 141-142.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Cornwell, J. F. M., & Franks, B. (2014). “Happiness” and “the Good Life” as Motives Working Together Effectively. In Elliot, A. J. (Ed.), Advances in Motivation Science (1 ed., Vol. 1, pp. 135-179). Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
      
  • Komissarouk, S., & Nadler, A. (2014). “I” Seek Autonomy, “We” Rely on Each Other: Self-Construal and Regulatory Focus as Determinants of Autonomy- and Dependency-Oriented Help-Seeking Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(6), 726-738.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Ozaki, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). Inflating and Deflating the Self: Sustaining Motivational Concerns through Self-Evaluation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 51, 60-73.
      
  • Webb, C. E., Franks, B., Romero, T., Higgins, E. T., & de Waal, F. B. M. (2014). Individual Differences in Chimpanzee Reconciliation Relate to Social Switching Behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 90, 57-63.
      
  • Zou, X., Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2014). In Pursuit of Progress: Promotion Motivation and Risk Preference in the Domain of Gains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(2), 183-201.
      

2013

  • Avnet, T., Laufer, D., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Are All Experiences of Fit Created Equal? Two Paths to Persuasion. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23(3), 301-316.
      
  • Cornwell, J. F. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Morality and Its Relation to Political Ideology: The Role of Promotion and Prevention Concerns. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(9), 1164-1172.
      
  • Echterhoff, G., Kopietz, R., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Adjusting Shared Reality: Communicators’ Memory Changes as Their Connection with Their Audience Changes. Social Cognition, 31(2), 162-186.
      
  • Eitam, B., Kennedy, P. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Motivation from Control. Experimental Brain Research, 229(3), 475-484.
      
  • Franks, B., Reiss, D., Cole, P., Friedrich, V., Thompson, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Predicting How Individuals Approach Enrichment: Regulatory Focus in Cotton-Top Tamarins (Sanguinus Oedipus). Zoo Biology, 32(4), 427-435.
      
  • Franks, B., Champagne, F. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). How Enrichment Affects Exploration Trade-Offs in Rats: Implications for Welfare and Well-Being. PLoS One, 8(12), e83578.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Franks, B., Pavarini, D., Sehnert, S., & Manley, K. (2013). Expressed Likelihood as Motivator: Creating Value through Engaging What’s Real. Journal of Economic Psychology, 38, 4-15.
      
  • Kim, H., Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Evidence That Self-Regulatory Mode Affects Retirement Savings. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 25(3), 248-263.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). The Distinct Psychologies of “Looking” and “Leaping”: Assessment and Locomotion as the Springs of Action. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7(2), 79-92.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2013). Dodging Monsters and Dancing with Dreams: Success and Failure at Different Levels of Approach and Avoidance. Emotion Review, 5(3), 254-258.
      

2012

  • Franks, B., Higgins, E. T., & Champagne, F. A. (2012). Evidence for Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus in Rats, Rattus Norvegicus. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126(4), 347-354.
      
  • Franks, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Effectiveness in Humans and Other Animals: A Common Basis for Well-Being and Welfare. In Olson, J. M., & Zanna, M. P. (Eds.), In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 46, pp. 285-346). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivational Fit. In Gawronski, B., & Strack, F. (Eds.), In Cognitive Consistency: A Fundamental Principle in Social Cognition (pp. 132-153). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Regulatory Focus Theory. In Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 483-504). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2012). Accessibility and Priming. In Van Lange, P. A. M., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 75-96). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Marguc, J., & Scholer, A. A. (2012). Value from Adversity: How We Deal with Adversity Matters. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 965-967.
      
  • McNeill, I. M., Higgins, E. T., Dreu, C. D. K. W., & Nijstad, B. A. (2012). The Price of a Piece of Cheese: Value from Fit between Epistemic Needs and a Learning versus an Outcome Focus. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 25(3), 315-327.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Motivated Thinking. In Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (Eds.), In The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 390-409). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2012). Commitment to Change from Locomotion Motivation during Deliberation. Motivation and Emotion, 36(2), 114-129.
      

2011

  • Bohns, V. K., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Liking the Same Things, but Doing Things Differently: Outcome versus Strategic Compatibility in Partner Preferences for Joint Tasks. Social Cognition, 29(5), 497-527.
      
  • Boldero, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Regulatory Focus and Political Decision Making: When People Favor Reform over the Status Quo. Political Psychology, 32(3), 399-418.
      
  • Hedberg, P. H., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). What Remains on Your Mind after You Are Done?: Flexible Regulation of Knowledge Accessibility. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(5), 882-890.
      
  • Klenk, M. M., Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2011). Regulatory Focus and Anxiety: A Self-Regulatory Model of GAD-Depression Comorbidity. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 935-943.
      
  • Zhang, S., Higgins, E. T., & Chen, G. (2011). Managing Others like You Were Managed: How Prevention Focus Motivates Copying Interpersonal Norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 647-663.
      

2010

  • Appelt, K. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). My Way: How Strategic Preferences Vary by Negotiator Role and Regulatory Focus. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46(6), 1138-1142.
      
  • Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Feeling Right or Being Right: When Strong Assessment Yields Strong Correction. Motivation and Emotion, 34(3), 316-324.
      
  • Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., Hagiwara, N., Navarrete, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). The Ecology of Automaticity: How Situational Contingencies Shape Action Semantics and Social Behavior. Psychological Science, 21(9), 1311-1317.
      
  • Eitam, B., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Motivation in Mental Accessibility: Relevance of a Representation (ROAR) as a New Framework. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(10), 951-967.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Cesario, J., Hagiwara, N., Spiegel, S., & Pittman, T. (2010). Increasing or Decreasing Interest in Activities: The Role of Regulatory Fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 559-572.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Zou, X., Fujita, K., Stroessner, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). When Risk Seeking Becomes a Motivational Necessity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99(2), 215-231.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Conflict and Control at Different Levels of Self-Regulation. In Hassin, R. R., Ochsner, K. N., & Trope, Y. (Eds.), In Self Control in Society, Mind, and Brain New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2010). Regulatory Focus in a Demanding World. In Hoyle, R. H. (Ed.), In Handbook of Personality and Self-Regulation (pp. 291-314). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
      

2009

  • Appelt, K. C., Zou, X., Arora, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Regulatory Fit in Negotiation: Effects of “Prevention-Buyer” and “Promotion-Seller” Fit. Social Cognition, 27(3), 365-384.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Weber, E., & Grant, H. (2009). Formulating and Testing Theories in Psychology. In Gelman, A., & Cortina, J. (Eds.), In A Quantitative Tour of the Social Sciences (pp. 271-300). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2009). Engaging the Consumer: The Science and Art of the Value Creation Process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 100-114.
      
  • Koenig, A. M., Cesario, J., Molden, D. C., Kosloff, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Incidental Experiences of Regulatory Fit and the Processing of Persuasive Appeals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(10), 1342-1355.
      
  • Koenig, A. M., Cesario, J., Molden, D. C., Kosloff, S., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Incidental Experiences of Regulatory Fit and the Processing of Persuasive Appeals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(10), 1342-1355.
      
  • Mauro, R., Pierro, A., Mannetti, L., Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2009). The Perfect Mix: Regulatory Complementarity and the Speed-Accuracy Balance in Group Performance. Psychological Science, 20(6), 681-685.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2009). Exploring the Complexities of Value Creation: The Role of Engagement Strength. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 137-143.
      

2008

  • Cesario, J., Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). Regulatory Fit and Persuasion: Basic Principles and Remaining Questions. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 444-463.
      
  • Cesario, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Making Message Recipients "Feel Right": How Nonverbal Cues Can Increase Persuasion. Psychological Science, 19(5), 415-420.
      
  • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., Kopietz, R., & Groll, S. (2008). How Communication Goals Determine When Audience Tuning Biases Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(1), 3-21.
      
  • Halamish, V., Liberman, N., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (2008). Regulatory Focus Effects on Discounting over Uncertainty for Losses vs. Gains. Journal of Economic Psychology, 29(5), 654-666.
      
  • Hausmann, L. R. M., Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Communication and Group Perception: Extending the "Saying Is Believing" Effect. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11(4), 539-554.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). When Is Personality Revealed?: A Motivated Cognition Approach. In John, O. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (3 ed., pp. 182-207). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2008). Regulatory Fit. In Shah, J. Y., & Gardner, W. L. (Eds.), In Handbook of Motivation Science (pp. 356-372). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., Camacho, C. J., Idson, L. C., Spiegel, S., & Scholer, A. A. (2008). How Making the Same Decision in a "Proper Way" Creates Value. Social Cognition, 26(5), 496-514.
      
  • Kopietz, R., Echterhoff, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). When Does Communication Affect Communicators’ Memory? The Role of Encoding Differences in Audience-Tuning Effects. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3), 55.
  • Latimer, A. E., Williams-Piehota, P., Katulak, N. A., Cox, A., Mowad, L., Higgins, E. T., & Salovey, P. (2008). Promoting Fruit and Vegetable Intake through Messages Tailored to Individual Differences in Regulatory Focus. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 363-369.
      
  • Latimer, A. E., Rivers, S. E., Rench, T. A., Katulak, N. A., Hicks, A., Hodorowski, J. K., Higgins, E. T., & Salovey, P. (2008). A Field Experiment Testing the Utility of Regulatory Fit Messages for Promoting Physical Activity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 826-832.
      
  • Molden, D. C., Lee, A. Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Motivations for Promotion and Prevention. In Shah, J. Y., & Gardner, W. L. (Eds.), In Handbook of Motivation Science (pp. 169-187). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). How Preferences for Eager versus Vigilant Judgment Strategies Affect Self-Serving Conclusions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1219-1228.
      
  • Pierro, A., Leder, S., Mannetti, L., Tory Higgins, E., Kruglanski, A. W., & Aiello, A. (2008). Regulatory Mode Effects on Counterfactual Thinking and Regret. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(2), 321-329.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). People as Resources: Exploring the Functionality of Warm and Cold. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(7), 1111-1120.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Distinguishing Levels of Approach and Avoidance: An Analysis Using Regulatory Focus Theory. In Elliot, A. J. (Ed.), In Handbook of Approach and Avoidance Motivation (pp. 489-504). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
      
  • Scholer, A. A., Stroessner, S. J., & Higgins, E. T. (2008). Responding to Negativity: How a Risky Tactic Can Serve a Vigilant Strategy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(3), 767-774.
      

2007

  • Brodscholl, J. C., Kober, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Strategies of Self-Regulation in Goal Attainment versus Goal Maintenance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(4), 628-648.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Freitas, A. L. (2007). Regulatory Fit: Its Nature and Consequences. In Ostroff, C., & Judge, T. A. (Eds.), In Perspectives on Organizational Fit (pp. 71-98). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T., Echterhoff, G., Crespillo, R., & Kopietz, R. (2007). Effects of Communication on Social Knowledge: Sharing Reality with Individual versus Group Audiences. Japanese Psychological Research, 49(2), 89-99.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2007). In Search of Generative Mechanisms: The Case of Value from Engagement Strength. In Shoda, Y., Cervone, D., & Downey, G. (Eds.), In Persons in Context: Building a Science of the Individual (pp. 110-129). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2007). Value. In Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (pp. 454-472). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & Pittman, T. S. (2007). Motives of the Human Animal: Comprehending, Managing, and Sharing Inner States. Annual Review of Psychology, 59(1), 361-385.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., Pierro, A., Higgins, E. T., & Capozza, D. (2007). “On the Move” or “Staying Put”: Locomotion, Need for Closure, and Reactions to Organizational Change. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(6), 1305-1340.
      
  • Liberman, N., Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). Completed vs. Interrupted Priming: Reduced Accessibility from Post-Fulfillment Inhibition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(2), 258-264.
      
  • Presaghi, F., Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2007). “Modi” Regolatori e Stili Di Insegnamento [Fit between Regulatory Mode and Teaching Styles]. Psicologia Sociale(1), 149-165.

2006

  • Cesario, J., Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Automatic Social Behavior as Motivated Preparation to Interact. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(6), 893-910.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Value from Hedonic Experience and Engagement. Psychological Review, 113(3), 439-460.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Motivational Sources of Unintended Thought: Irrational Intrusions or Side Effects of Rational Strategies?. In Hassin, R. R., Uleman, J. S., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.), In The New Unconscious (pp. 516-536). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). How Regulatory Fit Creates Value. In De Cremer, D., Zeelenberg, M., & Murnighan, K. J. (Eds.), In Social Psychology and Economics (pp. 79-94). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2006). Theory Development as a Family Affair. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(2), 129-132.
      
  • Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Regulatory mode and the joys of doing: Effects of "locomotion" and "assessment" on intrinsic and extrinsic task-motivation. European Journal of Personality, 20(5), 355-375.
      
  • Pierro, A., Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2006). Progress Takes Work: Effects of the Locomotion Dimension on Job Involvement, Effort Investment, and Task Performance in Organizations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(7), 1723-1743.
      

2005

  • Echterhoff, G., Higgins, E. T., & Groll, S. (2005). Audience-Tuning Effects on Memory: The Role of Shared Reality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 257-276.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Azizian, A., Travers, S., & Berry, S. A. (2005). The Evaluative Connotation of Processing Fluency: Inherently Positive or Moderated by Motivational Context?. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(6), 636-644.
      
  • Förster, J., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Accessibility from Active and Fulfilled Goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(3), 220-239.
      
  • Förster, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). How Global versus Local Perception Fits Regulatory Focus. Psychological Science, 16(8), 631-636.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2005). Value from Regulatory Fit. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(4), 209-213.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2005). Humans as Applied Motivation Scientists: Self-Consciousness from “Shared Reality” and “Becoming”. In Terrace, H. S., & Metcalfe, J. (Eds.), In The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness (pp. 157-173). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Predicting the Intensity of Losses vs. Non-Gains and Non-Losses vs. Gains in Judging Fairness and Value: A Test of the Loss Aversion Explanation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41(5), 527-534.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2005). Motivated Thinking. In Holyoak, K. J., & Morrison, R. G. (Eds.), In The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning (pp. 295-318). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Silberman, I., Higgins, E. T., & Dweck, C. S. (2005). Religion and World Change: Violence and Terrorism versus Peace. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 761-784.
      

2004

  • Brockner, J., Higgins, E. T., & Low, M. B. (2004). Regulatory Focus Theory and the Entrepreneurial Process. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(2), 203-220.
      
  • Cesario, J., Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory Fit and Persuasion: Transfer from "Feeling Right". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(3), 388-404.
      
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Werth, L. (2004). How Threat from Stereotype Disconfirmation Triggers Self-Defense. Social Cognition, 22(1), 54-74.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Spiegel, S. (2004). Promotion and Prevention Strategies for Self-Regulation: A Motivated Cognition Perspective. In Baumeister, R. F., & Vohs, K. D. (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications (1 ed., pp. 171-187). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). The Eighth Koan of Progress in Social Psychology: A Variable Anointed as “Special” Will Demand Special Treatment. In Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R., & Prentice, D. A. (Eds.), In Perspectivism in Social Psychology: The Yin and Yang of Scientific Progress (pp. 305-317). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). Regulatory Fit: An Experience That Creates Value. Journal of Cultural and Evolutionary Psychology, 2(1-2), 9-22.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2004). Making a Theory Useful: Lessons Handed Down. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(2), 138-145.
      
  • Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Imagining How You’d Feel: The Role of Motivational Experiences from Regulatory Fit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(7), 926-937.
      
  • Kruglanski, A. W., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Theory Construction in Social Personality Psychology: Personal Experiences and Lessons Learned. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(2), 96-97.
      
  • Molden, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Categorization under Uncertainty: Resolving Vagueness and Ambiguity with Eager versus Vigilant Strategies. Social Cognition, 22(2), 248-277.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). Promoting Us or Preventing Them: Regulatory Focus and Manifestations of Intergroup Bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(4), 433-446.
      
  • Spiegel, S., Grant-Pillow, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2004). How Regulatory Fit Enhances Motivational Strength during Goal Pursuit. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34(1), 39-54.
      

2003

  • Avnet, T., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Locomotion, Assessment, and Regulatory Fit: Value Transfer from “How” to “What”. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(5), 525-530.
      
  • Ayduk, O., May, D., Downey, G., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Tactical Differences in Coping with Rejection Sensitivity: The Role of Prevention Pride. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(4), 435-448.
      
  • Bianco, A. T., Higgins, E. T., & Klem, A. (2003). How “Fun/Importance” Fit Affects Performance: Relating Implicit Theories to Instructions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(9), 1091-1103.
      
  • Camacho, C. J., Higgins, E. T., & Luger, L. (2003). Moral Value Transfer from Regulatory Fit: What Feels Right Is Right and What Feels Wrong Is Wrong. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(3), 498-510.
      
  • Dweck, C. S., Higgins, E. T., & Grant-Pillow, H. (2003). Self-Systems Give Unique Meaning to Self Variables. In Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (1 ed., pp. 239-252). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Bianco, A. T. (2003). Speed/Accuracy Decisions in Task Performance: Built-in Trade-off or Separate Strategic Concerns?. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90(1), 148-164.
      
  • Grant, H., & Higgins, E. T. (2003). Optimism, Promotion Pride, and Prevention Pride as Predictors of Quality of Life. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(12), 1521-1532.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Molden, D. C. (2003). How Strategies for Making Judgments and Decisions Affect Cognition: Motivated Cognition Revisited. In Bodenhausen, G. V., & Lambert, A. J. (Eds.), In Foundations of Social Cognition: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert S. Wyer, Jr. (pp. 211-235). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T., Kruglanski, A. W., & Pierro, A. (2003). Regulatory Mode: Locomotion and Assessment as Distinct Orientations. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 35, pp. 293-344). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Idson, L. C., Freitas, A. L., Spiegel, S., & Molden, D. C. (2003). Transfer of Value from Fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(6), 1140-1153.
      

2002

  • Brockner, J., Paruchuri, S., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory Focus and the Probability Estimates of Conjunctive and Disjunctive Events. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 87(1), 5-24.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., Salovey, P., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). When to Begin? Regulatory Focus and Initiating Goal Pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(1), 121-130.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Enjoying Goal-Directed Action: The Role of Regulatory Fit. Psychological Science, 13(1), 1-6.
      
  • Freitas, A. L., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Regulatory Fit and Resisting Temptation during Goal Pursuit. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(3), 291-298.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2002). How Self-Regulation Creates Distinct Values: The Case of Promotion and Prevention Decision Making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(3), 177-191.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., Brazy, P. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2002). Promotion and Prevention Forms of Ingroup Bias. In Mackie, D. M., & Smith, E. R. (Eds.), In From Prejudice to Intergroup Emotions: Differentiated Reactions to Social Groups (pp. 31-48). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.

2001

  • Brockner, J., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory Rocus Theory: Implications for the Study of Emotions at Work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(1), 35-66.
      
  • Förster, J., Grant, H., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Success/Failure Feedback, Expectancies, and Approach/Avoidance Motivation: How Regulatory Focus Moderates Classic Relations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(3), 253-260.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Friedman, R., Harlow, R. E., Idson, L. C., Ayduk, O. N., & Taylor, A. (2001). Achievement Orientations from Subjective Histories of Success: Promotion Pride versus Prevention Pride. European Journal of Social Psychology, 31(1), 3-23.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & May, D. (2001). Individual Self-Regulatory Functions: It’s Not “We” Regulation, but It’s Still Social. In Sedikides, C., & Brewer, M. (Eds.), In Individual Self, Relational Self, Collective Self (pp. 47-67). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and Prevention Experiences: Relating Emotions to Nonemotional Motivational States. In Forgas, J. P. (Ed.), In Handbook of Affect and Social Cognition (pp. 186-211). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Shared Reality and Social Influence in Groups and Organizations. In Butera, F., & Mugny, G. (Eds.), In Social Influence in Social Reality: Promoting Individual and Social Change (pp. 33-52). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
  • Liberman, N., Molden, D. C., Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Promotion and Prevention Focus on Alternative Hypotheses: Implications for Attributional Functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(1), 5-18.
      
  • Shah, J. Y., & Higgins, E. T. (2001). Regulatory Concerns and Appraisal Efficiency: The General Impact of Promotion and Prevention. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(5), 693-705.
      

2000

  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Strack, F. (2000). When Stereotype Disconfirmation Is a Personal Threat: How Prejudice and Prevention Focus Moderate Incongruency Effects. Social Cognition, 18(2), 178-197.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (2000). Motivational Science: The Nature and Functions of Wanting. In Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), In Motivational Science: Social and Personality Perspectives (pp. 1-20). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (2000). Making a Good Decision: Value from Fit. American Psychologist, 55(11), 1217-1230.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (2000). Social Cognition: Learning about What Matters in the Social World. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(1), 3-39.
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  • Idson, L. C., Liberman, N., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Distinguishing Gains from Nonlosses and Losses from Nongains: A Regulatory Focus Perspective on Hedonic Intensity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36(3), 252-274.
      
  • Idson, L. C., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). How Current Feedback and Chronic Effectiveness Influence Motivation: Everything to Gain versus Everything to Lose. European Journal of Social Psychology, 30(4), 583-592.
      
  • Levine, J. M., Higgins, E. T., & Choi, H. (2000). Development of Strategic Norms in Groups. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82(1), 88-101.
      
  • Plaks, J. E., & Higgins, E. T. (2000). Pragmatic Use of Stereotyping in Teamwork: Social Loafing and Compensation as a Function of Inferred Partner–Situation Fit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 962-974.
      

1999

  • Higgins, E. T., Trope, Y., & Kwon, J. (1999). Augmentation and Undermining from Combining Activities: The Role of Choice in Activity Engagement Theory. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35(3), 285-307.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Grant, H., & Shah, J. (1999). Self-Regulation and Quality of Life: Emotional and Non-Emotional Life Experiences. In Kahneman, D., Shah, J., & Schwarz, N. (Eds.), In Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (pp. 244-266). New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). “Saying Is Believing” Effects: When Sharing Reality about Something Biases Knowledge and Evaluations. In Thompson, L. L., Levine, J. M., & Messick, D. M. (Eds.), In Shared Cognition in Organizations: The Management of Knowledge (pp. 33-48). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and Prevention as a Motivational Duality: Implications for Evaluative Processes. In Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.), In Dual-Process Theories in Social Psychology (pp. 503-525). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1999). Persons or Situations: Unique Explanatory Principles or Variability in General Principles?. In Cervone, D., & Shoda, Y. (Eds.), In The Coherence of Personality: Social-Cognitive Bases of Consistency, Variability, and Organization (pp. 61-93). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Liberman, N., Idson, L. C., Camacho, C. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Promotion and Prevention Choices between Stability and Change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1135-1145.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Own versus Other Standpoints in Self-Regulation: Developmental Antecedents and Functional Consequences. Review of General Psychology, 3(3), 188-223.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1999). Internal Representations of Others in Self-Regulation: A New Look at a Classic Issue. Social Cognition, 17(2), 186-208.
      

1998

  • Brendl, M. C., Markman, A. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1998). Mental Accounting as Self-Regulation: Representativeness to Goal-Derived Categories. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 29(2), 89-104.
  • Förster, J., Higgins, E. T., & Idson, L. C. (1998). Approach and Avoidance Strength during Goal Attainment: Regulatory Focus and the "Goal Looms Larger" Effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(5), 1115-1131.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Silberman, I. (1998). Development of Regulatory Focus: Promotion and Prevention as Ways of Living. In Heckhausen, J., & Dweck, C. S. (Eds.), In Motivation and Self-Regulation across the Life Span (pp. 78-113). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
      
  • Higgins, T. E. (1998). The Aboutness Principle: A Pervasive Influence on Human Inference. Social Cognition, 16(1), 173-198.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1998). From Expectancies to Worldviews: Regulatory Focus in Socialization and Cognition. In Darley, J. M., & Cooper, J. (Eds.), In Attribution and Social Interaction: The Legacy of Edward E. Jones (pp. 243-309). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
      
  • Shah, J., Higgins, E. T., & Friedman, R. S. (1998). Performance Incentives and Means: How Regulatory Focus Influences Goal Attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(2), 285-293.
      

1997

  • (1997). Biases in Social Cognition: “Aboutness” as a General Principle. In McGarty, C., Haslam, A. S., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In The Message of Social Psychology: Perspectives on Mind in Society (pp. 182-199). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  • Crowe, E., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Regulatory Focus and Strategic Inclinations: Promotion and Prevention in Decision-Making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69(2), 117-132.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Shah, J., & Friedman, R. S. (1997). Emotional Responses to Goal Attainment: Strength of Regulatory Focus as Moderator. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(3), 515-525.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1997). Beyond Pleasure and Pain. American Psychologist, 52(12), 1280-1300.
      
  • Shah, J., & Higgins, E. T. (1997). Expectancy x Value Effects: Regulatory Focus as Determinant of Magnitude and Direction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(3), 447-458.
      

1996

  • Alfieri, T., Ruble, D. N., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Gender Stereotypes during Adolescence: Developmental Changes and the Transition to Junior High School. Developmental Psychology, 32(6), 1129-1137.
      
  • Brendl, M. C., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Principles of Judging Valence: What Makes Events Positive or Negative?. In Zanna, M. P. (Ed.), In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 95-160). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
      
  • Hardin, C. D., & Higgins, E. T. (1996). Shared Reality: How Social Verification Makes the Subjective Objective. In Sorrentino, R. M., & Higgins, E. T. (Eds.), In Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: The Interpersonal Context (Vol. 3, pp. 28-84). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Knowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience. In Higgins, E. T., & Kruglanski, A. W. (Eds.), In Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (pp. 133-168). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). The "Self Digest": Self-Knowledge Serving Self-Regulatory Functions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1062-1083.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Ideals, Oughts, and Regulatory Focus: Affect and Motivation from Distinct Pains and Pleasures. In Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (Eds.), In The Psychology of Action: Linking Cognition and Motivation to Behavior (pp. 91-114). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996). Emotional Experiences: The Pains and Pleasures of Distinct Regulatory Systems. In Kavanaugh, R. D., Zimmerberg, B., & Fein, S. (Eds.), In Emotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 203-241). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

1995

  • Brendl, M. C., Higgins, E. T., & Lemm, K. M. (1995). Sensitivity to Varying Gains and Losses: The Role of Self-Discrepancies and Event Framing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1028-1051.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Ruble, D. N. (1995). The Four A’s of Life Transition Effects: Attention, Accessibility, Adaptation, and Adjustment. Social Cognition, 13(3), 215-242.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., Loeb, I., & Moretti, M. (1995). Self-Discrepancies and Developmental Shifts in Vulnerability: Life Transitions in the Regulatory Significance of Others. In Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. L. (Eds.), In Emotion, Cognition, and Representation (Vol. 6, pp. 191-230). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., Lee, J., Kwon, J., & Trope, Y. (1995). When Combining Intrinsic Motivations Undermines Interest: A Test of Activity Engagement Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(5), 749-767.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Brendl, M. C. (1995). Accessibility and Applicability: Some "Activation Rules" Influencing Judgment. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(3), 218-243.
      
  • Levine, J. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1995). Social Determinants of Cognition. Social Cognition, 13(3), 183-187.
      
  • Roney, C. J. R., Higgins, E. T., & Shah, J. (1995). Goals and Framing: How Outcome Focus Influences Motivation and Emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21(11), 1151-1160.
      

1994

  • Higgins, E. T., Roney, C. J. R., Crowe, E., & Hymes, C. (1994). Ideal versus Ought Predilections for Approach and Avoidance: Distinct Self-Regulatory Systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(2), 276-286.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Liberman, A. (1994). Memory Errors from a Change of Standard: A Lack of Awareness or of Understanding?. Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 227-258.
      
  • Ruble, D. N., Eisenberg, R., & Higgins, E. T. (1994). Developmental Changes in Achievement Evaluation: Motivational Implications of Self-Other Differences. Child Development, 65(4), 1095-1110.
      
  • Tykocinskl, O., Higgins, E. T., & Chaiken, S. (1994). Message Framing, Self-Discrepancies, and Yielding to Persuasive Messages: The Motivational Significance of Psychological Situations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(1), 107-115.
      

1993

  • Alexander, M. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Emotional Trade-Offs of Becoming a Parent: How Social Roles Influence Self-Discrepancy Effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(6), 1259-1269.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Winter, L. (1993). The "Acquisition Principle": How Beliefs about a Behavior’s Prolonged Circumstances Influence Correspondent Inference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19(5), 605-619.
      
  • Levine, J. M., Resnick, L. B., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). Social Foundations of Cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 44(1), 585-612.
      
  • Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The Self Construct in Social Cognition: Past, Present, and Future. In Segal, Z. V., & Blatt, S. J. (Eds.), In The Self in Emotional Distress: Cognitive and Psychodynamic Perspectives (pp. 3-40). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Trope, Y., & Higgins, E. T. (1993). The What, When, and How of Dispositional Inference: New Answers and New Questions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19(5), 493-500.
      

1992

  • Higgins, E. T., Vookles, J., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self and Health: How "Patterns" of Self-Beliefs Predict Types of Emotional and Physical Problems. Social Cognition, 10(1), 125-150.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social Cognition as a Social Science: How Social Action Creates Meaning. In Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Oliveri, M. E. (Eds.), In The Social Psychology of Mental Health: Basic Mechanisms and Applications (pp. 241-278). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1992). Unconscious Sources of Subjectivity and Suffering: Is Consciousness the Solution?. In Martin, L. L., & Tesser, A. (Eds.), In The Construction of Social Judgments (pp. 67-103). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Increasingly Complex but Less Interesting Articles: Scientific Progress or Regulatory Problem?. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(4), 489-492.
      
  • Higgins, E. T., & Tykocinski, O. (1992). Self-Discrepancies and Biographical Memory: Personality and Cognition at the Level of Psychological Situation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(5), 527-535.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1992). Achieving ‘shared Reality’ in the Communication Game: A Social Action That Creates Meaning. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 11(3), 107-131.
      
  • Newman, L. S., Higgins, E. T., & Vookles, J. (1992). Self-Guide Strength and Emotional Vulnerability: Birth Order as a Moderator of Self-Affect Relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(4), 402-411.
      
  • Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Higgins, E. T. (1992). Social Psychological Foundations of Mental Health. In Ruble, D. N., Costanzo, P. R., & Oliveri, M. E. (Eds.), In The Social Psychology of Mental Health: Basic Mechanisms and Applications (pp. 1-23). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

1991

  • Higgins, E. T. (1991). Expanding the Law of Cognitive Structure Activation: The Role of Knowledge Applicability. Psychological Inquiry, 2(2), 192-193.
      
  • Higgins, E. T. (1991). Development of Self-Regulatory and Self-Evaluative Processes: Costs, Benefits, and Tradeoffs. In Self Processes and Development (Vol. 23, pp. 125). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
  • McCann, D. C., Higgins, E. T., & Fondacaro, R. A. (1991). Primacy and Recency in Communication and Self-Persuasion: How Successive Audiences and Multiple Encodings Influence Subsequent Evaluative Judgments. Social Cognition, 9(1), 47-66.
      

1990

  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Self-State Representations: Patterns of Interconnected Beliefs with Specific Holistic Meanings and Importance. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 28(3), 248-253.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Personality, Social Psychology, and Person-Situation Relations: Standards and Knowledge Activation as a Common Language. In Pervin, L. A. (Ed.), In Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (pp. 301-338). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., & Trope, Y. (1990). Activity Engagement Theory: Implications of Multiply Identifiable Input for Intrinsic Motivation. In Higgins, E. T., & Sorrentino, R. M. (Eds.), In Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 229-264). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Higgins, E. T., Tykocinski, O., & Vookles, J. (1990). Patterns of Self-Beliefs: The Psychological Significance of Relations among the Actual, Ideal, Ought, Can, and Future Selves. In Olson, J. M., Zanna, M. P., & Herman, P. C. (Eds.), In Self-Inference Processes: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 6, pp. 153-190). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1990). Lay Epistemic Theory and the Relation between Motivation and Cognition. Psychological Inquiry, 1(3), 209-210.
      
  • McCann, D. C., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Social Cognition and Communication. In Giles, H., & Robinson, P. W. (Eds.), In Handbook of Language and Social Psychology (pp. 13-32). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). Relating Self-Discrepancy to Self-Esteem: The Contribution of Discrepancy beyond Actual-Self Ratings. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26(2), 108-123.
      
  • Moretti, M. M., & Higgins, E. T. (1990). The Development of Self-System Vulnerabilities: Social and Cognitive Factors in Developmental Psychopathology. In Sternberg, R. J., & Kolligan Jr., J. (Eds.), In Competence Considered (pp. 286-314). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Moretti, M. M., Higgins, E. T., & Feldman, L. A. (1990). The Self-System in Depression: Conceptualization and Treatment. In McCann, D. C., & Endler, N. S. (Eds.), In Depression: New Directions in Theory, Research, and Practice (pp. 127-156). Toronto, ON, Canada: Wall & Emerson.

1987

  • Higgins, E. T. (1987). Self-Discrepancy: A Theory Relating Self and Affect. Psychological Review, 94(3), 319-340.
      

1985

  • Higgins, E. T., Klein, R., & Strauman, T. (1985). Self-Concept Discrepancy Theory: A Psychological Model for Distinguishing among Different Aspects of Depression and Anxiety. Social Cognition, 3(1), 51-76.
      

1977

  • Higgins, E. T., Rholes, W. S., & Jones, C. R. (1977). Category Accessibility and Impression Formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13(2), 141-154.